An Interventionalist's Guide to Hemoptysis in Cystic Fibrosis.
Radiographics. 2018 Mar-Apr;38(2):624-641. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018170122. Monroe EJ1, Pierce DB1, Ingraham CR1, Johnson GE1, Shivaram GM1, Valji K1.
Massive hemoptysis occurs in a minority of patients with cystic fibrosis, with an annual incidence of 1%. Although rare, massive hemoptysis can be a severe and potentially fatal complication of this disease. Beyond the acute life-threatening event, hemoptysis in patients with cystic fibrosis has been associated with faster decline in lung function, accelerated need for lung transplant, and increased mortality. The bronchial arteries are the culprit vessels in over 90% of cases of hemoptysis. This normally quiescent vascular system undergoes remarkable hypertrophy, collateralization, and angiogenesis before the onset of hemoptysis, introducing numerous pitfalls for the interventionalist. However, in experienced hands, bronchial artery embolization is a safe and potentially lifesaving therapy. Preprocedural noninvasive imaging, specifically computed tomographic angiography, has been repeatedly validated for helping to localize the likely site of bleeding, characterizing pertinent arterial anatomy, and promoting efficient and effective intervention; it has been recommended for all stable patients with hemoptysis. Success in the angiographic suite requires a thorough understanding of normal and variant bronchial arterial anatomy, appropriate patient selection, and a meticulous embolization technique. A meticulous approach to imaging and intervention, conscientious of both visualized and nonvisualized collateral pathways and nontarget vessels, can minimize potentially devastating complications. This review summarizes the current literature, modern procedural techniques, and emerging controversies, serving to guide an evolving approach to management of patients with cystic fibrosis and hemoptysis. ©RSNA, 2018.