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Everything you need to know about Computed Tomography (CT) & CT Scanning


question

Question 15: HIV patient with increasing chest discomfort. The study was requested to rule out a pulmonary embolism. What is the diagnosis?

answer

Bronchial Arteries Enlarged as the Cause of Hemoptysis

CT of the Bronchial Arteries

  • The bronchial arteries arise directly from the descending aorta and supply blood to the airways, esophagus and lymph nodes
  • The left bronchial arteries arise from the anterior surface of the aorta or the concavity of the arch
  • The right bronchial arteries arise from the posterolateral aspect of the thoracic aorta

Massive Hemoptysis: Common Etiologies

  • Pulmonary TB
  • Bronchogenic carcinoma
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Aspergillosis
  • Lung abscess
  • Pneumonia
  • Pulmonary artery aneurysm

"A bronchial artery with a diameter of greater than 2 mm is considered to be abnormal and may be the source of hemoptysis. Extravasation of contrast medium, a specific sign of bronchial bleeding is occasionally seen; its reported prevalence is 4-11%."

Bronchial and Nonbronchial Systemic Arteries in patients with Hemoptysis: Detection on MDCT Angiography
Chung MJ et al.
AJR 2006;186:649-655

 

© 1999-2019 Elliot K. Fishman, MD, FACR. All rights reserved.