Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Primer for Radiologists.
Radiographics. 2018 Sep-Oct;38(5):1312-1336. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018170155. Epub 2018 Aug 3.
Febbo JA1, Gaddikeri RS1, Shah PN1.
The past 2 decades have seen a rapid growth in use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Not only is SBRT the reference standard for treatment of early-stage node-negative NSCLC in medically inoperable patients, it is also currently challenging the role of surgery for early-stage operable disease. SBRT is also used to treat recurrent disease and has a role in the management of multiple synchronous lung cancers. Imaging changes after SBRT differ from the changes after conventional radiation therapy in many ways, the knowledge of which is pertinent for accurate image interpretation. Posttreatment response assessment and detection of recurrent disease are heavily reliant on radiologic assessment, and often the decision to treat recurrent disease is based on the imaging findings themselves. This article provides a comprehensive review of the concepts of SBRT and the current indications for its use in the treatment of early-stage NSCLC, as well as a discussion of the CT findings seen after SBRT compared with the changes after conventional radiation therapy. Radiologic findings that are suggestive of recurrent disease and the imaging pitfalls are also highlighted. Finally, the rare complications after SBRT are described. SBRT is a major component of the changing treatment paradigms for early- and late-stage NSCLC. The imaging findings after SBRT often determine the next steps in a patient's clinical management. Therefore, radiologists must be familiar with the uses of this therapy and its radiologic appearance to be able to effectively contribute to the care of patients with NSCLC.