Principles of three-dimensional printing and clinical applications within the abdomen and pelvis.
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2018 Oct;43(10):2809-2822. doi: 10.1007/s00261-018-1554-8.
Bastawrous S1,2, Wake N3,4, Levin D5, Ripley B6,7.
Improvements in technology and reduction in costs have led to widespread interest in three-dimensional (3D) printing. 3D-printed anatomical models contribute to personalized medicine, surgical planning, and education across medical specialties, and these models are rapidly changing the landscape of clinical practice. A physical object that can be held in one's hands allows for significant advantages over standard two-dimensional (2D) or even 3D computer-based virtual models. Radiologists have the potential to play a significant role as consultants and educators across all specialties by providing 3D-printed models that enhance clinical care. This article reviews the basics of 3D printing, including how models are created from imaging data, clinical applications of 3D printing within the abdomen and pelvis, implications for education and training, limitations, and future directions.