Sarcoidosis from Head to Toe: What the Radiologist Needs to Know.
Radiographics. 2018 Jul-Aug;38(4):1180-1200. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018170157. Ganeshan D1, Menias CO1, Lubner MG1, Pickhardt PJ1, Sandrasegaran K1, Bhalla S1.
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder characterized by development of noncaseating granulomas in various organs. Although the etiology of this condition is unclear, environmental and genetic factors may be substantial in its pathogenesis. Clinical features are often nonspecific, and imaging is essential to diagnosis. Abnormalities may be seen on chest radiographs in more than 90% of patients with thoracic sarcoidosis. Symmetric hilar and mediastinal adenopathy and pulmonary micronodules in a perilymphatic distribution are characteristic features of sarcoidosis. Irreversible pulmonary fibrosis may be seen in 25% of patients with the disease. Although sarcoidosis commonly involves the lungs, it can affect virtually any organ in the body. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography/CT are useful in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, but imaging features may overlap with those of other conditions. Familiarity with the spectrum of multimodality imaging findings of sarcoidosis can help to suggest the diagnosis and guide appropriate management. ©RSNA, 2018.