Assessment of iodine uptake by pancreatic cancer following chemotherapy using dual-energy CT.
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2018 Feb;43(2):445-456. doi: 10.1007/s00261-017-1338-6. Kawamoto S1,2, Fuld MK3,4, Laheru D5, Huang P5,6, Fishman EK7.
Pancreatic cancer remains a major health problem, and only less than 20% of patients have resectable disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Systemic chemotherapy is often used in the patients with borderline resectable, locally advanced unresectable disease and metastatic disease. CT is often used to assess for therapeutic response; however, conventional imaging including CT may not correctly reflect treatment response after chemotherapy. Dual-energy (DE) CT can acquire datasets at two different photon spectra in a single CT acquisition, and permits separating materials and extract iodine by applying a material decomposition algorithm. Quantitative iodine mapping may have an added value over conventional CT imaging for monitoring the treatment effects in patients with pancreatic cancer and potentially serve as a unique biomarker for treatment response. In this pictorial essay, we will review the technique for iodine quantification of pancreatic cancer by DECT and discuss our observations of iodine quantification at baseline and after systemic chemotherapy with conventional cytotoxic agents, and illustrate example cases.