Imaging of Intestinal and Multivisceral Transplantation.
Radiographics. 2018 Mar-Apr;38(2):413-432. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018170086. Rees MA1, Amesur NB1, Cruz RJ1, Borhani AA1, Abu-Elmagd KM1, Costa G1, Dasyam AK1.
Intestinal transplantation has evolved from its experimental origins in the mid-20th century to its status today as an established treatment option for patients with end-stage intestinal failure who cannot be sustained with total parenteral nutrition. The most common source of intestinal failure in both adults and children is short-bowel syndrome, but a host of other disease processes can lead to this common end-point. The development of intestinal transplantation has presented multiple hurdles for the transplant community, including technical challenges, immunologic pitfalls, and infectious complications. Despite these hurdles, the success rate has climbed over the past decades owing to achievements that include improved surgical techniques, new immunosuppressive regimens, and more effective strategies for posttransplant surveillance and management. Nearly 2800 intestinal transplants have been performed worldwide, and current patient and graft survival rates are now comparable to those of other types of solid organ transplantations. As their population continues to increase, it will be increasingly likely that intestinal-transplant patients will seek imaging at sites other than transplant centers. Therefore, it is important that diagnostic and interventional radiologists be familiar with the procedure, its common variations, and the spectrum of postoperative complications. In this article, the authors provide an overview of intestinal transplantation, including the indications, variations, expected postoperative anatomy, and range of potential complications. ©RSNA, 2018.