Multimodality Imaging, including Dual-Energy CT, in the Evaluation of Gallbladder Disease.
Radiographics. 2018 Jan-Feb;38(1):75-89. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018170076. Ratanaprasatporn L1, Uyeda JW1, Wortman JR1, Richardson I1, Sodickson AD1.
Imaging of the gallbladder has a key role in the examination of patients with abdominal pain-especially pain localized to the right upper quadrant. Pathologic conditions that affect the gallbladder include cholelithiasis and associated complications such as acute and chronic cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, gallstone pancreatitis, and cancer. Modalities used to image the gallbladder include ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and nuclear scintigraphy. US is the primary imaging modality used to evaluate entities suspected of being gallbladder disease, as it is both sensitive and specific for demonstrating gallstones, biliary duct dilatation, and inflammatory features. However, CT is often the first imaging examination performed in patients who present to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain. Because the CT appearance of gallstones is variable, depending on the composition of the stone, pattern of calcification, and presence of gas, gallstones and other gallbladder conditions can be difficult to detect at conventional multidetector CT, with which data are acquired by using a single x-ray energy spectrum. Dual-energy CT, with which one takes advantage of the material-dependent x-ray absorption behavior of concurrently acquired high- and low-kilovolt-peak data, can add value by increasing the conspicuity of noncalcified gallstones and improving the detection of acute cholecystitis and gallbladder malignancy. In addition, MR cholangiopancreatography can be helpful for assessing choledocholithiasis and complicated biliary duct disease. ©RSNA, 2018.