Malignancy Rate, Histologic Grade, and Progression of Bosniak Category III and IV Complex Renal Cystic Lesions.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Dec;209(6):1285-1290. doi: 10.2214/AJR.17.18142. Epub 2017 Oct 5. Mousessian PN1, Yamauchi FI1, Mussi TC1, Baroni RH1.
OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the malignancy rate, histologic grade, and initial stage of surgically treated complex renal cysts classified as Bosniak category III or IV. For nonsurgical lesions, a secondary objective was to evaluate lesion progression on follow-up examinations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched our database for cystic lesions classified as Bosniak III or IV category on CT or MRI from January 2008 to April 2016. Surgically resected lesions, per category, were correlated with information on pathologic reports to obtain malignancy rates. For malignant lesions, histologic grade and initial stage were evaluated. Imaging follow-up of at least 2 years was used to evaluate progression of clinically followed lesions.
RESULTS: We included 86 lesions in 85 patients in the final analysis. Of the 60 surgically resected lesions (70%), 46 (77%) were malignant and 14 (23%) were benign. Malignancy rates were 72% for Bosniak category III lesions and 86% for Bosniak category IV lesions. Most malignant cysts were early-stage (pT1) cysts with low histologic grades (89% of Bosniak III lesions and 91% of Bosniak IV lesions). Follow-up studies of the surgically resected lesions did not show local recurrence, metastasis, or lymph node enlargement. Among patients with lesions managed by watchful waiting (n = 26), all lesions remained unchanged in terms of size and complexity after at least 2-years of follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Although high malignancy rates were observed for both Bosniak category III and IV lesions, our results suggest that such malignant cysts are usually early-stage tumors with a low histologic grade. Lesions that underwent follow-up remained unchanged on control examinations. These findings may indicate low aggressiveness of these lesions, supporting the idea that more conservative approaches may be used.