Adventures and Misadventures in Plastic Surgery and Soft-Tissue Implants.
Radiographics. 2017 Nov-Dec;37(7):2145-2163. doi: 10.1148/rg.2017170090. Lin DJ1, Wong TT1, Ciavarra GA1, Kazam JK1.
Soft-tissue augmentation and implants are increasingly seen by the radiologist as more techniques emerge for a variety of indications and locations. Some surgical and implant procedures are performed for purely cosmetic reasons in otherwise healthy patients seeking to improve their body image, and some are performed for reconstruction after cancer or other chronic illnesses. Abdominoplasty, liposuction, and autologous fat grafting can be performed for abdominal and gluteal contouring. Injection of liquid injectable silicone has historically been fraught with legal issues, although it continues to be used for augmentation in a variety of anatomic locations. Newer solid silicone implants have revolutionized cosmetic and reconstructive muscular contouring. Subdermal implants placed by nonmedical professionals are relatively new and unrecognized within the medical establishment, although such implants have been described in the popular culture. Perhaps the most rapidly increasing segment of cosmetic procedures, however, is minimally invasive cosmesis in the form of soft-tissue fillers in the hands and face. Finally, the major principles of breast augmentation and penile implants are also reviewed. Regardless of the location and the type of implant, complications of plastic surgery and soft-tissue implants can generally be classified into the following categories: seroma, hematoma, infection, migration, vascular or nerve compression, fibrosis, foreign-body reaction, and rupture or breakdown. Key concepts include knowing the appropriate anatomic location and the normal postoperative appearance so that complications can be properly detected. A broad range of approved, off-label, and illicit plastic surgical and implant procedures are described and their complications illustrated with cases with classic imaging findings. ©RSNA, 2017.