Discrimination Between Calcium Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Oxalate Using Multienergy Spectral Photon-Counting CT.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Nov;209(5):1088-1092. doi: 10.2214/AJR.17.18394. Epub 2017 Aug 23. Kirkbride TE1, Raja AY2, Müller K3, Bateman CJ4, Becce F5, Anderson NG2.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether multienergy spectral photon-counting CT could distinguish between clinically relevant calcium crystals at clinical x-ray energy ranges. Energy thresholds of 15, 22, 29, and 36 keV and tube voltages of 50, 80, and 110 kVp were selected. Images were analyzed to assess differences in linear attenuation coefficients between various concentrations of calcium hydroxyapatite (54.3, 211.7, 808.5, and 1169.3 mg/cm3) and calcium oxalate (2000 mg/cm3).
CONCLUSION: The two lower concentrations of hydroxyapatite were distinguishable from oxalate at all energy thresholds and tube voltages, whereas discrimination at higher concentrations depended primarily on the energy thresholds used. Multienergy spectral photon-counting CT shows promise for distinguishing these calcium crystals.