Pediatric Liver Transplant: Techniques and Complications.
Radiographics. 2017 Oct;37(6):1612-1631. doi: 10.1148/rg.2017170022. Horvat N1, Marcelino ASZ1, Horvat JV1, Yamanari TR1, Batista Araújo-Filho JA1, Panizza P1, Seda-Neto J1, Antunes da Fonseca E1, Carnevale FC1, Mendes de Oliveira Cerri L1, Chapchap P1, Cerri GG1.
Liver transplant is considered to be the last-resort treatment approach for pediatric patients with end-stage liver disease. Despite the remarkable advance in survival rates, liver transplant remains an intricate surgery with significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of complications is crucial for patient survival but is challenging given the lack of specificity in clinical presentation. Knowledge of the liver and vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient or recipients before surgery is also important to avoid complications. In this framework, radiologists play a pivotal role on the multidisciplinary team in both pre- and postoperative scenarios by providing a road map to guide the surgery and by assisting in diagnosis of complications. The most common complications after liver transplant are (a) vascular, including the hepatic artery, portal vein, hepatic veins, and inferior vena cava; (b) biliary; (c) parenchymal; (d) perihepatic; and (e) neoplastic. The authors review surgical techniques, the role of each imaging modality, normal posttransplant imaging features, types of complications after liver transplant, and information required in the radiology report that is critical to patient care. They present an algorithm for an imaging approach for pediatric patients after liver transplant and describe key points that should be included in radiologic reports in the pre- and postoperative settings. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2017.