Interstitial Lung Disease in Children Made Easier…Well, Almost.
Radiographics. 2017 Oct;37(6):1679-1703. doi: 10.1148/rg.2017170006. Semple TR1, Ashworth MT1, Owens CM1.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pediatric patients is different from that in adults, with a vast array of pathologic conditions unique to childhood, varied modes of presentation, and a different range of radiologic appearances. Although rare, childhood ILD (chILD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, most notably in conditions of disordered surfactant function, with respiratory failure in 100% of neonates with surfactant protein B dysfunction and 100% mortality without lung transplantation. The authors present a summary of lung development and anatomy, followed by an organized approach, using the structure and nomenclature of the 2013 update to the chILD Research Network classification system, to aid radiologic diagnosis of chILD. Index radiologic cases with contemporaneous histopathologic findings illustrate a summary of recent imaging studies covering the full spectrum of chILD. chILD is best grouped by age at presentation from infancy (diffuse developmental disorders, lung growth abnormalities, specific conditions of unknown origin, surfactant dysfunction mutations) to later childhood (disorders of the normal host, disorders related to systemic disease processes, disorders related to immunocompromise). Appreciation of the temporal division of chILD into infant and later childhood onset, along with a sound understanding of pulmonary organogenesis and surfactant homeostasis, will aid in providing useful insight into this important group of pediatric conditions. Application of secondary lobular anatomy to interpretation of thin-section computed tomographic images is pivotal to understanding patterns of ILD and will aid in selecting and narrowing a differential diagnosis. ©RSNA, 2017.