Diseases of the esophagus: a pattern approach.
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2017 Jun 24. doi: 10.1007/s00261-017-1218-0. [Epub ahead of print] Levine MS1, Rubesin SE2. Author information Abstract The esophagus may be involved by a variety of morphologic abnormalities, including nodules and plaques, ulceration, distal esophageal strictures and rings, upper or midesophageal strictures, and diffuse narrowing (also known as a small-caliber esophagus). The use of a pattern approach for evaluating esophageal disease on barium studies facilitates diagnosis of a host of pathologic conditions associated with these morphologic abnormalities. This article therefore presents an approach for diagnosing esophageal disease on barium studies that emphasizes the radiographic and clinical features used to differentiate the underlying causes of disease and the diagnostic pitfalls associated with performing and interpreting these studies.