Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Identifying the Loss of the Y Chromosome on Multiphasic MDCT.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Aug;209(2):333-338. doi: 10.2214/AJR.16.17010. Epub 2017 May 15. Young JR1, Coy H1, Douek M1, Lo P1, Sayre J1, Pantuck AJ2, Raman SS1.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate whether multiphasic MDCT enhancement can help identify clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with the loss of the Y chromosome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We derived a cohort of 43 clear cell RCCs in men who underwent preoperative four-phase renal mass MDCT from October 2000 to August 2013. Each lesion was segmented in its entirety on axial images. A computer-assisted detection algorithm selected a 0.5-cm-diameter region of maximal attenuation within each lesion in each phase. A 0.5-cm-diameter ROI was manually placed on uninvolved renal cortex in each phase. The relative attenuation of each lesion was calculated as follows: [(maximal lesion attenuation - cortex attenuation) / cortex attenuation] × 100. Absolute attenuation and relative attenuation in each phase were compared using t tests.
RESULTS: Both clear cell RCCs with the loss of the Y chromosome and clear cell RCCs without the loss of the Y chromosome exhibited peak enhancement in the corticomedullary phase. However, relative nephrographic attenuation of clear cell RCCs with the loss of Y was significantly less than that of clear cell RCCs without the loss of Y (mean, -8.9 vs 8.4 respectively; p = 0.013). A relative nephrographic attenuation threshold of -1.6 identified the loss of Y with an accuracy of 70% (30/43), sensitivity of 73% (16/22), and specificity of 67% (14/21).
CONCLUSION: Multiphasic MDCT enhancement may assist in identifying the loss of the Y chromosome in clear cell RCCs; this result should be validated in a large prospective trial.