An Interventionist's Guide to Endocrine Consultations.
Radiographics. 2017 Jul-Aug;37(4):1246-1267. doi: 10.1148/rg.2017160102. Monroe EJ1, Carney BW1, Ingraham CR1, Johnson GE1, Valji K1.
Endocrinopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders often resulting from pathologic sources of hormone production. When the clinical scenario, laboratory testing, and noninvasive imaging fail to aid confident identification of the source of hormone excess, endocrine venous sampling may localize obscure lesions to guide subsequent treatment. Knowledge of basic hormone signaling pathways, common pathophysiologic disruptions of these pathways, and serologic evaluation fosters informed conversations with referring physicians and effective patient selection. Success in the angiography suite requires familiarity with normal and variant anatomy of the multiple organs of the endocrine system, patient preparation, stimulation and sampling techniques, specimen handling, and results interpretation. ©RSNA, 2017.