Beyond the Bowel: Extraintestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Radiographics. 2017 Jul-Aug;37(4):1135-1160. doi: 10.1148/rg.2017160121. Epub 2017 May 26. Olpin JD1, Sjoberg BP1, Stilwill SE1, Jensen LE1, Rezvani M1, Shaaban AM1.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing immune-mediated inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD includes two major disease entities: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of these complex disorders. Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance enterographic techniques have been refined in recent years to provide a superb means of evaluating the gastrointestinal tract for suspected IBD. Although the intestinal imaging manifestations of IBD have been extensively discussed in the radiology literature, extraintestinal imaging manifestations of IBD have received less attention. Multiple extraintestinal manifestations may be seen in IBD, including those of gastrointestinal (hepatobiliary and pancreatic), genitourinary, musculoskeletal, pulmonary, cardiac, ocular, and dermatologic disorders. Although many associations between IBD and extraintestinal organ systems have been well established, other associations have not been fully elucidated. Some extraintestinal disorders may share a common pathogenesis with IBD. Other extraintestinal disorders may occur as a result of unintended treatment-related complications of IBD. Although extraintestinal disorders within the abdomen and pelvis may be well depicted with cross-sectional enterography, other musculoskeletal and thoracic disorders may be less evident with such examinations and may warrant further investigation with additional imaging examinations or may be readily apparent from the findings at physical examination. Radiologists involved in the interpretation of IBD imaging examinations must be aware of potential extraintestinal manifestations, to provide referring clinicians with an accurate and comprehensive profile of patients with these complex disorders. © RSNA, 2017.