Clinical risk factors alone are inadequate for predicting significant coronary artery disease.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2017 Jul - Aug;11(4):309-316. doi: 10.1016/j.jcct.2017.04.011. Epub 2017 Apr 27. Korley FK1, Gatsonis C2, Snyder BS3, George RT4, Abd T5, Zimmerman SL6, Litt HI7, Hollander JE8.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to derive and validate a model for identifying suspected ACS patients harboring undiagnosed significant coronary artery disease (CAD).
METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data from a randomized control trial (RCT). Patients randomized to the CTA arm of an RCT examining a CTA-based strategy for ruling-out acute coronary syndrome (ACS) constitute the derivation cohort, which was randomly divided into a training dataset (2/3, used for model derivation) and a test dataset (1/3, used for internal validation (IV)). ED patients from a different center receiving CTA to evaluate for suspected ACS constitute the external validation (EV) cohort. Primary outcome was CTA-assessed significant CAD (stenosis of ≥50% in a major coronary artery).
RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, 11.2% (76/679) of subjects had CTA-assessed significant CAD, and in the EV cohort, 8.2% of subjects (87/1056) had CTA-assessed significant CAD. Age was the strongest predictor of significant CAD among the clinical risk factors examined. Predictor variables included in the derived logistic regression model were: age, sex, tobacco use, diabetes, and race. This model exhibited an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.61-0.83) based on IV, and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.82) based on EV. The derived random forest model based on clinical risk factors yielded improved but not sufficient discrimination of significant CAD (ROC AUC = 0.76 [95% CI: 0.67-0.85] based on IV). Coronary artery calcium score was a more accurate predictor of significant CAD than any combination of clinical risk factors (ROC AUC = 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.94] based on IV; ROC AUC = 0.92 [95% CI: 0.88-0.95] based on EV).
CONCLUSIONS: Clinical risk factors, either individually or in combination, are insufficient for accurately identifying suspected ACS patients harboring undiagnosed significant coronary artery disease.