Imaging of Abdominal and Pelvic Manifestations of Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Jul;209(1):33-45. doi: 10.2214/AJR.17.17866. Epub 2017 May 2. Lubner MG1, Menias CO2, Agrons M3, Alhalabi K2, Katabathina VS4, Elsayes KM5, Pickhardt PJ1.
OBJECTIVE: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). GVHD predominantly affects the skin, gastrointestinal system and hepatobiliary systems. Imaging findings in the gastrointestinal tract include bowel wall thickening with mucosal enhancement, mesenteric edema, and vascular engorgement. In the hepatobiliary system, hepatosplenomegaly, periportal edema, bile duct dilatation, and gallbladder and biliary wall thickening are seen. Although the imaging findings of GVHD are nonspecific, with a known history of HSCT, GVHD should be considered.
CONCLUSION: GVHD is a serious complication of HSCT, which involves multiple organ systems, with imaging manifestations most commonly seen in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system. Knowledge of the imaging manifestations of GVHD, which alone may be relatively nonspecific, taken in conjunction with clinical history including the timing and type of HSCT, laboratory values, stool studies, and dermatologic findings can increase radiologist confidence in suggesting this diagnosis.