Cushing Syndrome: Diagnostic Workup and Imaging Features, With Clinical and Pathologic Correlation.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Jul;209(1):19-32. doi: 10.2214/AJR.16.17290. Wagner-Bartak NA1, Baiomy A1, Habra MA2, Mukhi SV3, Morani AC1, Korivi BR1, Waguespack SG2, Elsayes KM1.
OBJECTIVE: Cushing syndrome (CS) is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess cortisol, either exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous CS is most commonly caused by administration of glucocorticoids. Endogenous CS is subdivided into two types: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent and ACTH independent.
CONCLUSION: Cushing disease, which is caused by a pituitary adenoma, is the most common cause of ACTH-dependent CS for which pituitary MRI can be diagnostic, with bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling useful in equivocal cases. In ectopic ACTH production, which is usually caused by a tumor in the thorax (e.g., small cell lung carcinoma, bronchial and thymic carcinoids, or medullary thyroid carcinoma) or abdomen (e.g., gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors or pheochromocytoma), CT, MRI, and nuclear medicine tests are used for localizing the source of ACTH. In ACTH-independent CS, which is caused by various adrenal abnormalities, adrenal protocol CT or MRI is usually diagnostic.