Imaging features of papillary renal cell carcinoma with cystic change-dominant appearance in the era of the 2016 WHO classification.
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2017 Jul;42(7):1850-1856. doi: 10.1007/s00261-017-1189-1. Honda Y1, Goto K2, Nakamura Y3, Terada H3, Sentani K4, Yasui W4, Sekino Y2,4, Hayashi T2, Teishima J2, Matsubara A2, Fuji T3, Kaichi Y3, Higaki T3, Baba Y3, Iida M3, Awai K3.
PURPOSE: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (P-RCC) typically exhibits a homogeneous, solid hypovascular mass; P-RCC with a cystic appearance is atypical. Tubulocystic RCC (TC-RCC), a newly proposed entity for renal tumors in the 2016 WHO classification, and cystic papillary RCC, may yield similar imaging findings. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of papillary RCC with cystic changes and compared its CT and pathologic features to differentiate between two entities.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 26 consecutive patients diagnosed with P-RCC. Two radiologists consensually identified dominant masses indicative of cystic changes on CT scans and recorded their Bosniak classification. In addition, two pathologists inspected the whole area of tumors macroscopically, labeled them as solid- or cystic change-dominant tumors, determined the pathogenesis of the cystic components (necrosis or hemorrhage), and recorded their inherent cystic characteristics (with/without TC-RCC components). We defined masses with cystic changes involving more than 50% of the entire tumor as cystic change-dominant tumors.
RESULTS: Of the 26 tumors, 7 (27%) were diagnosed cystic change-dominant based on imaging and pathologic findings, of these, 2 were classified as Bosniak type III and 5 as Bosniak type IV. The pathologists confirmed that two type IV tumors demonstrated extensive necrosis and one type IV tumor revealed extensive hemorrhage. Four P-RCCs (type III and IV, 2 each) were of a mixed type harboring both solid and cystic components. Only one tumor exhibited a multilocular cystic appearance. All 7 cystic change-dominant P-RCCs were pathologically diagnosed as a pure P-RCC without TC-RCC components.
CONCLUSION: While P-RCCs may contain cystic features, the multilocular type of cystic P-RCC is rare.