Stratification, Imaging, and Management of Acute Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism.
Radiology. 2017 Jul;284(1):5-24. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2017151978. Sista AK1, Kuo WT1, Schiebler M1, Madoff DC1.
While pulmonary embolism (PE) causes approximately 100 000-180 000 deaths per year in the United States, mortality is restricted to patients who have massive or submassive PEs. This state of the art review familiarizes the reader with these categories of PE. The review discusses the following topics: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, rationale for stratification, imaging, massive PE management and outcomes, submassive PE management and outcomes, and future directions. It summarizes the most up-to-date literature on imaging, systemic thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy, and catheter-directed therapy for submassive and massive PE and gives representative examples that reflect modern practice. © RSNA, 2017.