The lymphatic system and pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016 Oct 10;381(1):217-36. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2015.11.048. Epub 2015 Dec 29.
Fink DM1, Steele MM1, Hollingsworth MA2.
This review summarizes current knowledge of the biology, pathology and clinical understanding of lymphatic invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. We discuss the clinical and biological consequences of lymphatic invasion and metastasis, including paraneoplastic effects on immune responses and consider the possible benefit of therapies to treat tumors that are localized to lymphatics. A review of current techniques and methods to study interactions between tumors and lymphatics is presented.