Traumatic injuries of the diaphragm: overview of imaging findings and diagnosis.
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2017 Apr;42(4):1020-1027. doi: 10.1007/s00261-016-0908-3.
Hammer MM1, Raptis DA2, Mellnick VM2, Bhalla S2, Raptis CA2.
Injuries to the diaphragm muscle occur in penetrating and severe blunt trauma and can lead to delayed hernia formation. Computed tomography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of these injuries, which may be subtle at presentation. Imaging findings differ between blunt and penetrating trauma. Key features in blunt trauma include diaphragm fragment distraction and organ herniation because of increased intra-abdominal pressure. In penetrating trauma, herniation is uncommon, and the trajectory of the object is critical in making the diagnosis of diaphragm injury in these patients. Radiologists must keep a high index of suspicion for injury to the diaphragm in cases of trauma to the chest or abdomen.