Sex differences in aortic root and vascular anatomy in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation: A computed-tomographic study.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2017 Mar - Apr;11(2):87-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jcct.2017.01.006. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
Hamdan A1, Barbash I2, Schwammenthal E2, Segev A2, Kornowski R3, Assali A3, Shaviv E4, Fefer P2, Goitein O5, Konen E5, Guetta V2.
BACKGROUND: Very little data exist on the impact of sex on aortic and arterial anatomy as relevant for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) referred for TAVI display sex-specific differences in aortic root and ilio-femoral artery size.
METHODS: In 506 patients referred for pre-procedural CT evaluation before TAVI we performed a detailed assessment of aortic root anatomy: size of the annulus and the sinus of Valsalva (SoV), diameter of the sino-tubular junction (STJ), and distance of the coronary artery ostia to the aortic annulus plane; we also determined the dimensions of aorta, subclavian, and ilio-femoral arteries. RESULTS: Women had significantly smaller aortic root dimensions (annulus mean diameter: 22.9 ± 2.2 mm vs. 25.7 ± 2.7 mm, SoV mean diameter: 31.8 ± 4.2 mm vs. 36.3 ± 3.8 mm, STJ mean diameter: 26.3 ± 3.4 mm vs. 29.8 ± 4.2 mm) and lower left and right coronary artery ostia take-off (12.3 ± 2.4 vs. 14.1 ± 2.9 mm; 14.8 ± 2.6 vs. 17.1 ± 3.2 mm, respectively) than men (P < 0.001 for all), even after adjustment for their smaller body surface area (BSA) and height. Dimensions of the ascending aorta, subclavian and ilio-femoral arteries were also significantly smaller in women, but not when adjusted for BSA.
CONCLUSIONS: Women with severe AS had smaller aortic root dimensions even after correcting for their smaller body size and height, reflecting a sex-specific difference. In contrast, sex-related differences in aortic, subclavian, and ilio-femoral dimensions were fully explained by the smaller BSA of women.