Renal Cell Carcinoma: Comparison of RENAL Nephrometry and PADUA Scores with Maximum Tumor Diameter for Prediction of Local Recurrence after Thermal Ablation.
Radiology. 2016 Nov 22:161225. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2016161225. [Epub ahead of print]
Maxwell AW1, Baird GL1, Iannuccilli JD1, Mayo-Smith WW1, Dupuy DE1.
Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the radius, exophytic or endophytic, nearness to collecting system or sinus, anterior or posterior, and location relative to polar lines (RENAL) nephrometry and preoperative aspects and dimensions used for anatomic classification (PADUA) scoring systems and other tumor biometrics for prediction of local tumor recurrence in patients with renal cell carcinoma after thermal ablation.
Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was performed with a waiver of informed consent after institutional review board approval was obtained. A retrospective evaluation of 207 consecutive patients (131 men, 76 women; mean age, 71.9 years ± 10.9) with 217 biopsy-proven renal cell carcinoma tumors treated with thermal ablation was conducted. Serial postablation computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate for local tumor recurrence. For each tumor, RENAL nephrometry and PADUA scores were calculated by using imaging-derived tumor morphologic data. Several additional tumor biometrics and combinations thereof were also measured, including maximum tumor diameter. The Harrell C index and hazard regression techniques were used to quantify associations with local tumor recurrence.
Results: The RENAL (hazard ratio, 1.43; P = .003) and PADUA (hazard ratio, 1.80; P < .0001) scores were found to be significantly associated with recurrence when regression techniques were used but demonstrated only poor to fair discrimination according to Harrell C index results (C, 0.68 and 0.75, respectively). Maximum tumor diameter showed the highest discriminatory strength of any individual variable evaluated (C, 0.81) and was also significantly predictive when regression techniques were used (hazard ratio, 2.98; P < .0001). For every 1-cm increase in diameter, the estimated rate of recurrence risk increased by 198%.
Conclusion: Maximum tumor diameter demonstrates superior performance relative to existing tumor scoring systems and other evaluated biometrics for prediction of local tumor recurrence after renal cell carcinoma ablation. © RSNA, 2016.