Pediatric Neuroendocrine Carcinoid Tumors: Review of Diagnostic Imaging Findings and Recent Advances.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Apr;208(4):868-877. doi: 10.2214/AJR.16.17287. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
Degnan AJ1,2,3, Tadros SS1,2,3, Tocchio S4.
OBJECTIVE: Although rare, pediatric neuroendocrine tumors including carcinoid tumor have increased in incidence over the past few decades. Despite increased recognition, survival rates have not significantly improved. Earlier detection of these tumors is necessary to improve clinical outcomes. This article discusses imaging approaches for detecting pediatric carcinoid tumors including anatomic imaging methods such as CT and MRI as well as functional imaging methods targeting the somatostatin receptor including 111In-labeled octreotide and newer 68Ga-based radiotracers that may hold promise in hybrid PET/CT or PET/MRI.
CONCLUSION: Improvements in functional imaging with novel somatostatin receptor-specific radiotracers along with fused functional and anatomic imaging have substantially improved the clinical detection of carcinoid tumors. Although rare, these tumors are encountered in children, and an awareness of the appropriate use of various imaging methods is essential for pediatric specialists. Further research is needed to ascertain the diagnostic value of newer imaging methods and radiotracer-based treatment approaches, especially in the pediatric population.