Diagnosis and Management of Complications from Percutaneous Biliary Tract Interventions.
Radiographics. 2017 Mar-Apr;37(2):665-680. doi: 10.1148/rg.2017160159.
Venkatanarasimha N1, Damodharan K1, Gogna A1, Leong S1, Too CW1, Patel A1, Tay KH1, Tan BS1, Lo R1, Irani F1.
Complications related to percutaneous biliary tract interventions (PBTIs) can range from access site discomfort to life-threatening vascular complications. These complications are relatively uncommon, and most of them are self-limiting. However, major complications for which an increased level of patient care and/or a prolonged hospital stay are required and that may lead to death-albeit rarely-can occur. Some of the most common complications related to PBTI include pain, infection, bile leakage, and catheter blockage. These conditions can be easily recognized by using the patient's clinical history and laboratory examination results. However, the more uncommon complications, such as life-threatening hemobilia, acute pancreatitis, and catheter and stent fractures, may have nonspecific clinical manifestations, and the underlying pathologic condition may be found only when it is being sought specifically. It is important that diagnostic and interventional radiologists be aware of the wide spectrum of PBTI-related complications, as early recognition and treatment may prevent catastrophic situations. In addition, knowledge of the different treatment options is essential for guidance in interventional radiology procedures such as transarterial control of hemobilia, imaging-guided direct percutaneous embolization of pseudoaneurysms, and percutaneous treatment of catheter- and stent-related complications such as fractures. The authors review a wide spectrum of complications associated with PBTI and the percutaneous management of these conditions. They also highlight valuable lessons learned from morbidity and mortality rounds at a high-volume tertiary care center. ©RSNA, 2017.