Spectrum of Xanthogranulomatous Processes in the Abdomen and Pelvis: A Pictorial Review of Infectious, Inflammatory, and Proliferative Responses.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Mar;208(3):475-484. doi: 10.2214/AJR.16.17075. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
Bourm KS1, Menias CO2, Ali K1, Alhalabi K2, Elsayes KM3.
OBJECTIVE: Xanthogranulomatous (XG) processes are rare inflammatory conditions with the characteristic pathologic feature of lipid-laden macrophages or histiocyte cells. Imaging findings are nonspecific and can simulate aggressive neoplastic processes. XG processes can be caused by infection, inflammation, histolytic process, or an inherited lysosomal disorder. XG infectious processes are mainly seen in cholecystitis and pyelonephritis, but several other organs can also be involved. Histiocytic processes can be divided into Langerhans and non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis entities include Erdheim-Chester disease, Rosai-Dorfman disease, juvenile xanthogranuloma, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The inherited lysosomal disorders resulting in XG processes include Nieman-Pick, Gaucher, and other lysosomal storage disorders.
CONCLUSION: Radiologists need to be able to recognize features of xanthogranulomatous processes to help facilitate patient management.