Thermal Injury-induced Hepatic Parenchymal Hypoperfusion: Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Radiofrequency Ablation.
Radiology. 2016 Sep 19:152322. [Epub ahead of print]
Lee DH1, Lee JM1, Yoon JH1, Kim YJ1, Han JK1.
Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate whether thermal injury-induced hepatic parenchymal hypoperfusion can be a significant risk factor for tumor recurrence after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The study population comprised 130 patients (87 men, 43 women; mean age, 61.4 years ± 8.95; age range, 39-84 years) with single nodular HCCs smaller than 5 cm who underwent RFA between January 2011 and December 2012. The development of RFA-induced hepatic parenchymal hypoperfusion was assessed with follow-up computed tomography (CT). After a mean follow-up of 36.7 months ± 10.8, the authors analyzed the overall and recurrence-free survival and the cumulative incidence of each type of recurrence (ie, local tumor progression [LTP], intrahepatic distant recurrence [IDR], and extrahepatic metastasis) by evaluating prognostic factors with use of the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression model.
Results: RFA-induced hepatic parenchymal hypoperfusion developed in 41 of the 130 patients (31.5%) but did not have a significant effect on overall survival (P = .634). However, the estimated 3-year recurrence-free survival rate was 43.3% in the 41 patients with RFA-induced hepatic parenchymal hypoxia and 61.9% in the 89 patients without hypoxia, a statistically significant difference (P = .019). The 3-year cumulative incidence of IDR was significantly higher in patients with RFA-induced hepatic parenchymal hypoperfusion than in those without hypoxia (33.3% vs 54.1%, P = .006). Conversely, the 3-year cumulative incidence of LTP and extrahepatic metastases showed no significant differences (P > .05 for both).
Conclusion: The development of RFA-induced hepatic parenchymal hypoperfusion is a significant predictive factor of recurrence (of IDR in particular) after RFA of a single nodular HCC. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.